is a professor of philosophy and history at Walla Walla University, in Walla Walla, Washington. He is a former associate professor of philosophy at West Chester University in Pennsylvania where he directed the university’s Frederick Douglass Institute. He spent 20 years as a criminal defense attorney and practiced law in the Federal Court of Appeals. He holds a Ph.D. in philosophy from the Thurgood Marshall School of Law at the University of Memphis and a J.D. from Texas Southern University.